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NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster - Commercial ion engine (NEXT-C)

Electric propulsion engine composed of a thruster and a power-processing unit

NASA’s Evolutionary Xenon Thruster(NEXT) is a gridded-ion thruster. In an ion thruster, ions are accelerated by electrostatic forces. The electric fields used for acceleration are generated by electrodes positioned at the downstream end of the thruster. Each set of electrodes, called ion optics or grids, contains thousands of coaxial apertures. Each set of apertures acts as a lens that electrically focuses ions through the optics. NASA’s ion thrusters use a two-electrode system, where the upstream electrode (called the screen grid) is charged highly positive, and the downstream electrode (called the accelerator grid) is charged highly negative. Since the ions are generated in a region of high positive and the accelerator grid’s potential is negative, the ions are attracted toward the accelerator grid and are focused out of the discharge chamber through the apertures, creating thousands of ion jets. The stream of all the ion jets together is called the ion beam. The thrust force is the force that exists between the upstream ions and the accelerator grid. The exhaust velocity of the ions in the beam is based on the voltage applied to the optics. While a chemical rocket’s top speed is limited by the thermal capability of the rocket nozzle, the ion thruster’s top speed is limited by the voltage that is applied to the ion optics (which is theoretically unlimited).

See also: Institute NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration

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