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Robotic Surgery

We’re a long way from robots automating surgery as much as they automate other industries such as manufacturing. However, there is a clear path to this futuristic end:

  • 100% human controlled robotic device – this is where we are at the moment, complex surgical instruments rather than robots (e.g. Da Vinci).
  • Restricted human controlled robotic device – where the surgeon can specify limits to movements, in advance, to avoid accidental damage (e.g. THINK Surgical).
  • Automation of standard parts of surgical procedures – for example, making incisions and sewing up (see below).
  • Controlled autonomous robot surgery – medical team provides high-level plan for robot to follow, with human approval needed at each stage of the process. However, with telesurgery, the team may be remote (e.g. a different country) to the patient.
  • Supervised autonomous robot surgery – humans will still provide supervision with a hand poised over a big red emergency stop button. Eventually, we will have to get rid of the emergency button too as there won’t be any human surgeons to take any corrective action.

The end result may appear challenging, but each step feeds into the next – providing data for future AI systems to learn from.

Although, currently, there may not be a cost-benefit to using robotic systems, as with all technology the prices will come down. And as we progress to the later stages of automation then the savings (e.g. of training surgeons whose skills are lost when they retire) will make most operations affordable to all.


Although to the patient an operation may be a life changing experience, some procedures are very much routine and performed by a surgeon many times each day. The less unique patient-unique parts of these operations are already the target of new companies – for example, the Smart Tissue Autonomous Robot (STAR) uses 3D infra-red imaging to outperform experts making surgical incisions, resulting in less damage to the surrounding tissue, and can also accurately sew a wound back up.

See also nanobots information and telemedicine news in digital health.


Click on resource name for more details.

CMR Surgical

Company designing next-generation tool for surgery.

Virtual Incision

Company focused on developing an advanced, miniaturized robot for general surgery abdominal procedures, such as colon resections

Vicarious Surgical

Vicarious Surgical develops virtual reality software for minimally invasive surgery procedures.

Verb Surgical

Medical equipment manufacturer in Santa Clara, California.

Auris Health

Robotic medical company which is a pioneer in surgical robotics.


Company that produced world’s first endoluminal robotic platform with a steerable and shapeable robotic scope.

UVD Robots

Robotic based UV Disinfection solutions for hospitals


Manufacturer of industrial robots and solutions for factory automation.

TINAVI Medical Technologies

Company developing and production orthopedic surgery navigation and positioning robots


Company that develops and sells medical equipment

More Robotic Surgery resources

Recent News

World's first MRI-compatible surgical robot cleared by FDA for breast biopsies

FierceBiotech - 13-Sep-2023

Safer, more accurate breast biopsies made possible with IGAR robot


Royal Brompton and St Bartholomew’s Hospitals now offer robot-assisted lung biopsies

Independent - 07-Aug-2023

Highly precise shape-sensing technology to help clinicians diagnose & treat lung cancer at early-stage


New AI-powered robot makes brain surgeries much less invasive

Interesting Engineering - 17-Jul-2023

A flexible robotic system for deep brain surgeries with up to 50% less tissue damage


Soft robot opens the door for possible surgical applications via remote control inside human body

Interesting Engineering - 27-Feb-2023

Keyhole surgery without the keyhole? Very early days but imagine swallowing a robot which can operate on you from the inside


$15M raised for series A round for robotic dental procedures by Cyberdontics

TechCrunch - 17-Oct-2022

Cyberdontics-robot cuts the tooth and fabricates a prosthetic at the same time-efficacy and speed

More Robotic Surgery News