Here is a round up of the current contenders for slowing or reducing aging. As research continues, and if/when they make real advancements in human trials (or at least human cells) I’ll split them into their own pages with more analysis.
Diabetics who are on metformin actually seem to be living longer than nondiabetics who are not on it – Bill Gifford
Known as “the powerhouse of the cell”, mitochondria generate most of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. They are membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Non-sanctioned therapy used by athritis sufferers.
The Therapeutic use of Radon: A Biomedical Treatment in Europe; An “Alternative” Remedy in the United States – National Center for Biotechnology Information – 23-Sep-2006
Discusses the decision-making process involved in using radon, and compare the Montana radon health mine facilities with selected radon mines and spas in Europe.
Rapamycin (aka sirolimus)
A chemical produced by bacteria that has been shown to have immunosuppressive and antiproliferative properties. It is currently used in the prevention of transplant rejection and as a coronary stent coating, and is also being tested for certain cancers.
Biologists slow ageing process in fruit flies – IB Times – 7-Sep-2017
As people age, their mitochondria often become damaged – damaging the cells where any build-up occurs.
Mitochondria in middle-aged fruit flies start to enlarge from their small, round shape.
Cells not able to clear the damaged mitochondria.
UCLA researchers used Drp1 protein to break them up into smaller pieces.
In flies and mice, levels of Drp1 decline with age.
Also need Atg1 gene for the anti-ageing technique to work.
Flies to become more energetic and lived longer than usual (females 20%, males 12%).
Prolonging Life with Fecal Transplants – Josh Mitteldorf – 10-Apr-2017
Middle-aged fish receiving a transplant of gut bacteria from young fish had in increased mean lifespan of 41%.
Fish that received young transplants were more active and showed more exploratory behavior later in life.
Loss of diversity is one of the ways that the gut microbiome is known to change with age.
Gut microbiomes vary widely but different sets of bacteria are able to perform similar services.
Fecal transplants are being studied as possible treatments for ulcerative colitis, IBS, type 2 diabetes and obesity.
Rapamycin may slow aging – Cosmetic Surgery Times – 3-Jan-2017
Increases lifespan of mice by the equivalent of 10 human years.
Rapamycin is an immunosuppressant, anti-fungal and anti-cancer macrolide compound
Binds and inhibits the activation of the mammalian Target Of Rapamycin (mTOR).
Already used in humans as a transplant rejection inhibitor, therapy for renal cell carcinoma and as a stent coating.
Eating a well aged cheese could help you live longer – Business Insider – 15-Nov-2016
Research published in Nature Medicine finds the compound spermidine improves cardiovascular health.
Spermidine found in many foods including aged cheese, legumes and whole grains.
Study of 800 Italians found that eating more spermidine foods was also associated with lowered blood pressures.
Previous studies have shown it extends the lifespans of simple organisms such as fruit flies and roundworms as well as mice.
Boosting levels of antioxidant may help resist age-related decline – Kurzweil AI – 28-Oct-2016
Glutathione helps resist the toxic stresses of everyday life – levels decline with age.
N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is used in high doses in medical detoxification emergencies (e.g. ingestion of heavy metals, acetaminophen overdose).
At lower levels NAC might help maintain glutathione levels and prevent the routine metabolic declines associated with aging.
Rat study showed cells from younger animals are far more resistant to stress than those from older animals.
Scientists discover elixir of youth – Independent – 27-Oct-2016
Natural compound, called NMN, found in avocado, broccoli, cucumber, cabbage and edamame has remarkable anti-ageing effects in mice.
Older mice given NMN saw beneficial effects in bone density, muscles immune system, liver performance and eyesight.
Animals produce less NAD when they get older – was boosted by giving mice NMN in drinking water.
Human clinical trials are underway in Japan.
NAD might also give an energy boost to cancer cells – though no increase in mice trials.
High-grade NMN for human consumption is not commercially available at present.
First human clinical trial for nicotinamide riboside – Kurzweil AI – 11-Oct-2016
Nicotinamide riboside (NR) is a form of Vitamin B3.
University of Iowa researchers have shown that the compound is safe for humans.
It increases levels of NAD+ that is critical for cellular energy production and protection against stress and DNA damage.
Levels of NAD+ diminish with age.
Previous mice studies have also shown it increases lifespan.
Clinical research seeks fountain of youth – Japan News – 15-Sept-2016
Keio University running a human trial orally administered nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN).
NMN indirectly activates sirtuins which is known to inhibit aging.
In previous mice trials muscles have been rejuvenated from the equivalent of 60 year old to 20 year old.
Life expectancy of mice increased and gap with healthy life expectancy reduced.
Difference between average life expectancy and healthy life expectancy is about 10 years in Japan.
NMN is found in animals and plants but it would be difficult for humans to get enough in their diet to make a difference.
Heavy Isotopes and Slowed Aging – Fight Aging! – 1-Sep-2016
Raising short-lived species on a low dosage of heavy water appears to modestly slow aging.
May provide greater resistance to oxidative damage or may be the effect of hormesis.
As yeast cells age the overall heavy isotopic content declines in their amino acids.
Studies have shown:
– transient exposure to heavy water at juvenile stages extends lifespan of fruit flies
– deuterated polyunsaturated fatty acids can protect yeast and mammalian cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage to mitochondria
– 25% heavy water normalized high blood pressure in rats
Heavy isotopes are atoms with extra neutrons, for example deuterium (present in heavy water) and carbon-14 (used in carbon dating)
Life extending drug tested on dogs – Deccan Chronicle – 15-Aug-2016
Anti-rejection drug rapamycin extend the life of mice by more than 25 per cent.
If similar effect in canines it could extend dogs’ lives by four years.
Statistically significant improvements in heart function in phase 1 trial.
Mitochondria trigger cell aging – Medical Xpress – 4-Feb-2016
Probably only 1 of many aging factors at cellular level – but every little helps as reducing aging a little buys a few more years for science to reduce it even more.
Newcastle University study removed all mitochondria from human cells grown in the laboratory.
Cells were rejuvenated and became similar to younger cells.
Levels of inflammatory molecules dropped.
Metformin, Gamma Rays or Chocolate? – IEET – 26-Dec-2015
Brian Hanley discusses the safety of metformin aging clinical trial.
Median life span extension for mice 6.87%.
2-4 years extra life span might be possible for humans.
Gamma ray irradiation extended mouse life span by 6.5%.
Chocolate may have as large an overall effect as metformin – Acticoa, a Swiss product, improved cognition and increased life span by 11%.
Metformin human trials planned – Diabetes.co.uk – 30-Nov-2015
Could significantly increase life expectancy and health span.
20 years ago aging was a biological mystery.
Mice given metformin lived almost 40 per cent longer.
Targeting Aging with Metformin (TAME) trial scheduled for next winter with 3,000 70 to 80 years olds.
If you target an aging process and you slow down aging then you slow down all the diseases and pathology of aging as well – Professor Gordon Lithgow.
Seven Emerging Technologies That Will Change the World Forever – IEET (Gray Scott) – 29-Sep-2015
Researchers gave the mice a compound called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or NAD for a week and found that the age indicators in two-year-old mice were restored to that of six-month-old mice. That would be like turning a 60-year-old human into a 20-year-old!
Weak doses of radiation prolong life of female flies – Medical Xpress – 24-Aug-2015
Hormesis, where moderate stress has a stimulating effect on an organism and enables the prolongation of life, was first discovered in 1888. This study with weak doses of gamma radiation prolonged the life of fruit flies by 5%.
Study Examines Epigenetic Regulation – Science World Report – 26-May-2015
addition of glycine for 10 days to 97 year old fibroblast cell line helped to restore respiratory function
Pill of super-protective ‘heavy’ fat may be key to eternal youth – New Scientist – 13-May-2015
Hyrdrogen replaced with deuterium strengthens bonds between molecules in cell membranes – could reduce free radical damage. Initial trials to try to slow the progression of Friedreich’s ataxia.
Biologists discover the key mechanism that triggers human ageing – ScienceAlert – 1-May-15
accumulated alterations in the structure of heterochromatin may be a major underlying cause of cellular aging
Broad Institute and Calico collaboration to find therapeutic approaches to diseases of aging – Calico – 17-Mar-15
Calico is a Google-founded R&D company whose mission is to harness advanced technologies to increase our understanding of the biology that controls lifespan
Silicon Valley Is Trying to Make Humans Immortal—and Finding Some Success – Newsweek – 5-Mar-15
Everyday drugs could give extra years of life – New Scientist – 01-Oct-14
Rapamycin in mice
It may be possible to slow or even reverse the effects of ageing by stimulating mitochondrial activity through exercise, diet or drugs. – New Scientist (subscription) – 22-Sep-14