Covering lab grown and engineered replacement human organs and well as mechanical artificial organs.
ReAnima – https://reanima.tech/
Comprehensive neuro-regeneration and neuro-reanimation is a possibility.
Bionic larynx sounds more natural than artificial voice boxes – Digital Trends – 26-Feb-2018
MARCS Institute has demonstrated a groundbreaking noninvasive artificial larynx.
Pneumatic Artificial Larynx (PAL) doesn’t require invasive surgical implantation.
Utilizes a patient’s own respiratory system in order to work.
Patient’s own breath creates a humming sound.
Sound is then converted into speech through the movement of the lips and tongue.
Living Human Intestinal Lining recreated On Chip – Medical Xpress – 16-Feb-2018
Microengineered Intestine-Chips mirror living tissue.
Formed intestinal folds as they do in the human body.
Opens the door to personalized testing of drug treatments.
Individual’s own stem cells could seed chip to test multiple drugs.
Study was part of is an initiative of Cedars-Sinai Precision Health.
Recent Advances in Regenerative Medicine – Fight Aging – 9-Feb-18
Progressing towards the ability to build complex tissues from a cell sample.
Transplants of cell populations are still very challenging.
Dozens of advances occur every year – some key ones recently:
– first lung stem cell transplantation clinical trial
– scientists create functioning kidney tissue
– tissue-engineered blood vessel replacements closer to human trials
Practical hair regeneration technology – Phys – 2-Feb-2018
New method for the mass preparation of hair follicle germs (HFGs).
Study reports the successful preparation of up to 5000 HFGs simultaneously.
Used oxygen-permeable dimethylpolysiloxane (PDMS) as substrate material for culture vessel.
Confirmed hair generation at back and scalp transplantation sites on mice.
How to grow functioning human muscles from stem cells – Kurzweil AI – 10-Jan-2018
Duke University has grown the first functioning human skeletal muscle from iPSCs.
Human induced pluripotent stem cells can generate any type of cell in the body.
When grown with a molecule called Pax7 it signals them to start becoming muscle.
Resulting muscle fibers contract and react to external stimuli.
Implanted fibers progressively integrated into native tissue by growing blood vessels.
New technique could be used for cellular therapies, drug discovery, and studying rare diseases
Society for Regenerative Medicine Manufacturing Formed – Digital Journal – 8-Jan-2018
Inaugural meeting will take place during the World Stem Cell Summit.
Will promote the scale-up of regenerative medicine manufacturing technologies and processes.
Goals include scaling up tools, developing standards and integrating technologies.
Cell biology hacked to create complex shapes that form living tissue – Kurzweil AI – 5-Jan-2018
3D cell-patterning shapes active mouse and human embryonic cells into thin layers of extracellular matrix fibers.
Shapes can be used to create bowls, coils, and ripples out of living tissue.
UCSF lab approach uses DNA-programmed assembly of cells (DPAC),
It provides an initial template (pattern) for tissue to later develop.
Could significantly improve the structure, maturation, and vascularization” of tissues in organoids.
AgeX Identifies Genes Implicated in Regeneration and Cancer – Business Wire – 2-Jan-2018
Study that reveals genes implicated in tissue regeneration, cancer, and aging.
Worked in collaboration with BioTime and Insilico Medicine.
Utilized artificial intelligence (AI) technology to parse millions of gene expression data points.
Candidate genes are expressed differently in tissues early in development when they are capable of regeneration.
COX7A1 displayed a rare profile of being nearly universally dysregulated in diverse types of cancer.
Link to video discussion on the possibility of inducing tissue regeneration (iTR).
Race to create body parts in the lab – The Guardian – 5-Dec-2017
Decellurised scaffold is basted in patient stem cells, called mesoangioblasts.
Bioreactor pumps in nutrients and cells begin to form a tube of smooth muscle.
Then need to place under the skin to vascularise it.
Ultimate goal is to make synthetic organs from scratch using a synthetic scaffold.
Creating a Life-Saving Industry – Regenerative Manufacturing – Industry Week – 13-Nov-2017
Dean Kamen’s early inventions include the first wearable infusion pump.
Has vision to bring regenerative medicine to full-scale production.
Building organs in the lab is happening right now.
BioFabUSA brings together the expertise to bring the production of organs to scale.
Looking to bring a product to market within in a few years.
Entire system of healthcare will change when able to print new organs on demand.
Mass-produced cardiac muscle cells brought closer to reality – Asahi – 26-Oct-2017
Keio University team piled 10 layers of iPS cell culture plates each measuring 20 x 30 cm.
Also made a device to supply oxygen and carbon dioxide evenly to the plates.
Produced 1 billion cardiac muscle cells – enough to deal with several patients.
Could lead to the commercialization of regenerative medicine.
Plans to start a clinical study next fiscal year.
Body-on-a-chip includes heart, liver and lung organoids – Kurzweil AI – 9-Oct-2017
Heart and liver toxicity is a major reason for drug candidate failures and drug recalls.
Liver and cardiac modules are created by bioprinting 3D hydrogel constructs.
Nutrient-filled liquid keeps the organoids alive and introduces potential drug therapies.
Drug’s effect on one organ may circulate and effect a different organ.
Aims to reduce cost of failures earlier in pharmaceutical development.
Mini-kidneys grown in lab reveal renal disease secrets – Medical Xpress – 2-Oct-2017
PKD mini-kidneys grown in free-floating conditions formed hollow cysts that were very large.
The organoids are grown from human stem cells.
Polycystic kidney disease affects 12 million people.
VIDEO: Watch kidney organoids grow from human cells and form cysts.
Interview with regenerative medicine RepliCel’s CEO – Digital Journal – 21-Sep-2017
Regenerative medicine is a game-changing area of medicine. It has the potential to fully heal damaged tissues and organs.
RepliCel’s CEO, Lee Buckler is telling about challenges and wins in this field.
Immune System Critical to Tissue Regeneration – LEAF Science – 21-Sep-2017
Study in salamanders finds heart tissue regeneration depends on presence of macrophages. Research could help promote scar-free healing in humans following a heart attack. Cardiomyocyte proliferation is not the only determinant in heart regeneration. Humans have the same genetic machinery of salamanders.
Human Transplant Organs Should Be As Common As Cell Phones – Newsweek – 16-Sep-2017
Joseph Vacanti one of the authors of “The Vacanti Mouse” – a mouse with a human ear on its back reveals details about that story two decades later.
He believes in order to create human body parts they just need another million dollars in funding so they could do the final large animal experiments that could lead to a human trial.
“..over a billion people on planet earth need new organs… So the notion that we can help all those people with just what we currently do is not correct.,” said Vacanti.
Lab-grown bone cell breakthrough – STV News – 12-Sep-2017
Nanokicking used to grow 3D samples of mineralised bone for the first time.
Laser interferometer systems turn mesenchymal cells into bone cells in three dimensions.
Development has already helped to save a dog’s leg being amputated.
Human trials expected as early as 2020 in the NHS.
Bone grafts are used in reconstructive and orthopaedic surgeries.
Breakthrough for the generation of fully functional skin tissue – Next Big Future – 09-June-2017
SkinTE regenerated full-thickness, organized skin and hair follicles in third degree burn wounds. Utilizes the subject’s own skin, and is prepared and used to treat the wound in less than 24 hours. Global market for tissue engineering expected to grow to $56.9 bn by 2019.
Artificial Thymus to Create Cancer-Fighting Cells – Futurism – 10-Apr-2017
T-cells mature within this gland.
People with some types of cancer are not getting the biological support and help they need from their T cells.
Also, nw adoptive T cell immunotherapy treatments depend on the patient having enough of these cells.
UCLA researchers have created artificial thymic organoids that create T cells from blood stem cells.
Able to produce cancer-specific T cells.
Scientists create first 3-D synchronized-beating heart tissue – Kurzweil AI – 8-Feb-2017
York University has created in vitro 3D heart tissue made from three different types of cardiac cells.
No external scaffold was used.
Will allow better and earlier drug testing.
Created at a millimeter scale, but larger versions could be made.
3D Bioprinter Make Artificial Bones From Scratch (VIDEO) – SingularityHUB – 8-Jul-2016
New Aether bioprinter aiming to be fraction of cost of existing biological 3D printers.
Video shows fabrication of bones seeded with two kinds of stem cells hooked together with tendons, transistors, and conductive wires.
Can include 10 different materials in one print.
COMMENT: one day organ transplant waiting lists will be a thing of the past.
Lab-grown skin sprouts hair and grows glands – BBC News – 1-Apr-2016
Took cells from gums and converted them into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).
Crafted skin with multiple layers including hair follicles and sweat glands.
Research done in mice – will take 5-10 years to translate into humans.
Could also be used to recreate skin diseases in a dish for testing.
Rapidly Building Arteries that Produce Biochemical Signals – Duke University – 18-Feb-2016
Reproduce signalling between cell layers within arterial walls (endothelium and media).
Production in hours instead of weeks.
Enables 3D microscale artificial organ platforms to test drugs for efficacy and side effects.
Mechanically strong so could be used inside of the body.
COMMENT: getting blood to cells in artificial organs is a limiting factor – this could really help
Doctors 3D-print ‘living’ body parts – BBC News – 16-Feb-2016
Sections of bone, muscle and cartilage all functioned normally when implanted into animals
Blood vessels and nerves grew into the implants.
Challenge for replacement organs has been keeping the cells alive as they become starved of oxygen and nutrients.
3D-prints a tissue riddled with micro-channels to allow nutrients to penetrate the tissue.
3D-printing a new lifelike liver tissue for drug screening – Kurzweil AI – 15-Feb-2016
Closely mimics the human liver’s sophisticated structure and function.
Honeycomb pattern using cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.
Could be used for patient-specific drug screening and disease modeling.
90% of drugs don’t pass animal tests or human clinical trials.
Artificial trachea pioneer reinvestigated – The Scientist – 5-Feb-2016
Paolo Macchiarini is again facing an investigation into his research practices.
Swedish documentary series aired new information on his case.
Most Realistic Lab-Grown Liver Tissue Yet – Futurism – 29-Jan-2016
Human cells taken from a real liver used to construct a microfluidics-based tissue.
Designed to mimic the tiny and complex lobules that make up the liver.
Similar metabolic rate of genuine liver tissue and reacts in realistic way to drugs.
Growing organs using patient’s own cells avoids rejection risks and need for immunosuppressant drugs.
Initially likely to be used liver physiology/pathophysiology and hepatotoxicity studies.
Indian startup grows human liver in lab – The Hindu – 24-Dec-2014
Pandorum Technologies has developed an artificial tissue that performs the functions of the human liver.
3D-printed living tissues made of human cells will serve as test platforms for development of drugs and vaccines with better efficacy, less side-effects and be developed at lower costs.
Global artificial organ and bionics market is expected to reach $38.75 billion by 2020.
Functional vocal-cord tissue grown in lab – Kurzweil AI – 19-Nov-2015
Cells grown from mucosa then applied to 3D collagen scaffold.
Form a tissue with pliable, strong connective tissue, layered epithelial cells and also immature basement membrane which helps create a barrier against pathogens.
Fiber structure less complex than adult vocal cords.
Tissue had “normal sound output” in lab tests.
Clinical applications are still years away.
Consumer 3D printer used to create human tissue (VIDEO) – BBC News – 28-Oct-2015
Researchers from Carnegie Mellon University develop new method to print soft materials – such as collagens, alginates and fibrins.
Each layer requires support from layers below so use a gelatin support gel.
Adapted low cost MakerBot 3D printer.
Open source designs.
Gene-editing record could enable xenotransplants – Nature – 6-Oct-2015
Harvard Medical School use CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing technology to inactivate 62 porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) in pig embryos. Ten times more edits than in any other animal.
May allow pig organs to be suitable for human transplantation.
Cutting multiple genes will also be useful for human therapies because many diseases with a genetic component involve more than one gene.
Lab-grown kidneys work in animals – BBC News – 22-Sep-2015
Jikei University School of Medicine in Tokyo grew kidneys, drainage tube and bladder from pig and rat stem cells.
Successfully passed urine when transplanted and still working eight weeks later.
One person a day dies in the UK alone waiting for a kidney transplant.
Hope is that patients could use dialysis machine until new kidneys grown for them from their own stem cells.
Ouro_botics developing build affordable modular bioprinter – Irish Tech News – 1-Sep-2015
10 micron accuracy bioprinting platform that can be fitted with different types of extruder heads.
Key aims are ease of use, accuracy, upgradability and reliability.
And affordable biohackers and researchers.
Expect human tissue arrays for drug testing imminently.
Then human skin, corneas, patches of tissue for repair.
And future will bring augmented tissue – why copy an organ when you can make it better?
Rokit enters 3D bioprinting race – 3DPrint.com – 22-Jul-2015
The manufacturer of the 3Dison range of desktop 3D printers has announced a $3 million government grant with the aim of having a 3D bioprinter working on-site at the Seoul National University Bundang Hospital within 3 years. Initial focus will be bioprinting human skin tissue which would improve the availability of grafts and reduce the side-effects of existing transplantation procedures.
Artificial liver alternative to transplant – Science Daily – 17-Jul-2015
Spheroid Reservoir Bioartificial Liver (SRBAL) successfully tested in pigs. Healthy hepatocytes reduce severity of liver disease. Over 30,000 people die from liver failure each year in the US alone.
Artificial blood human trials by 2017 – The Independent – 25-Jun-2015
NHS to test laboratory made blood – guaranteed infection free. Initial safety trials could lead to mass production of red blood cells for emergency transfusions.
Tissue scaffold technology could help rebuild large organs – KurzweilAI – 19-Jun-2015
Large pieces of cartilage created. Aim is to repair damaged human joint tissue.
Functioning synthetic blood vessels become the real thing – GizMag – 29-Apr-15
“vascular prostheses” were completely replaced by biological blood vessels within six months of being implanted. Additionally, no aneurysms, thromboses or inflammation were noted. The technology is still under development, with human trials expected to begin within a few years.
Two New Teams Join Global Effort to Bioengineer a New Liver – New Organ – 4-Feb-2015
$1m prize to first team to create a fully functioning replacement liver – Methuselah Foundation – Dec 13
The New Organ Liver Prize will award $1,000,000 to the first team that creates a regenerative or bioengineered solution that keeps a large animal alive for 90 days without native liver function.