Known as “the powerhouse of the cell”, mitochondria generate most of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism. They are membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Mitochondrial Contribution to Aging and Age-Related Disease – Fight Aging – 21-Dec-2017
Mitochondria are primarily responsible for generating chemical energy stores.
Small number of genes remain to form the circular mitochondrial DNA.
Mitochondrial DNA can become damaged and impair the energy generation machinery.
Cellular quality control that destroy problematic mitochondria start to fail.
Boosting Mitochondrial Quality Control to Combat Alzheimer’s – Leaf Science – 8-Dec-2017
Diseases like Alzheimer’s are the result of the loss of proteostasis.
This leads to the creation of sticky misfolded proteins which form plaques.
EPFL researchers identified two key processes that act as a quality control system.
Used doxycycline and nicotinamide riboside (NR) to activate the UPRmt and mitophagy system.
Health and lifespan of worms increased dramatically and formation of plaques was reduced.
Key to Diseases in Mitochondrial DNA Mutations – Longevity Facts – 6-Dec-2017
DNA sequences between mitochondria inside a single cell are vastly different.
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to type 2 diabetes, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s and cardiovascular disease.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is only inherited from your mother.
UPenn researchers isolated a single mitochondrion and then extracted its DNA.
Biologists slow ageing process in fruit flies – IB Times – 7-Sep-2017
As people age, their mitochondria often become damaged – damaging the cells where any build-up occurs.
Mitochondria in middle-aged fruit flies start to enlarge from their small, round shape.
Cells not able to clear the damaged mitochondria.
UCLA researchers used Drp1 protein to break them up into smaller pieces.
In flies and mice, levels of Drp1 decline with age.
Also need Atg1 gene for the anti-ageing technique to work.
Flies to become more energetic and lived longer than usual (females 20%, males 12%).
Vitamin stops the aging process in organs – Kurzweil AI – 6-May-2016
EPFL researchers restore ability of mice organs to regenerate – also extending life.
Administering nicotinamide riboside (NR) to organs helped mitochondria to function properly and reduce senescence.
Reduced regenerative capacity of organs leads to many of the disorders typical of aging.
Nicotinamide riboside is similar to vitamin B3 and is a precursor of NAD+.
More research required as boosting the functioning of all cells could include pathological ones.
Mitochondria trigger cell aging – Medical Xpress – 4-Feb-2016
Probably only 1 of many aging factors at cellular level – but every little helps as reducing aging a little buys a few more years for science to reduce it even more.
Newcastle University study removed all mitochondria from human cells grown in the laboratory.
Cells were rejuvenated and became similar to younger cells.
Levels of inflammatory molecules dropped.
It may be possible to slow or even reverse the effects of ageing by stimulating mitochondrial activity through exercise, diet or drugs. – New Scientist (subscription) – 22-Sep-14