Personalised Medicine

Efficacy of most drugs is remarkably poor – and thats before taking into account pharmaceutical companies only publish positive studies.

I’ll be digging around for statistics on this, for example what is the average efficacy of modern drug compared to a placebo? How many people get any benefit at all? And are the side affects worth the benefit?

In future drugs will be chosen based on your DNA and even gene expression, as well as broader factors such as sex and health. One drop of blood, instant analysis, personal drug selection or even personal drug design – tailored perfectly to your individual body.

Latest News

DNA tests make people live healthier lives – Independent – 15-Jun-2018
DNA tests encouraged 90 per cent to adopt healthier habits.
Receiving information on their personal genetic risk triggered changes.
Estonian government is trialling genetic testing 100,000 citizens.
Web tool compares genomic information with 49,000 genetic markers.
KardioKompass delivers a risk score of developing coronary heart disease.

The DNA Data We Have Is Too White – Smithsonian Mag – 30-Apr-18
87 percent of participants in worldwide genomics research of European descent.
Disparity could potentially leave out minorities from benefitting.
All of Us initiative actively seeking out more minorities.
History of medical mistreatment prevents minorities from getting excited about volunteering.

100,000 Genomes Project hits halfway milestone – Cancer Research UK – 16-Feb-2018
Project to uncover the genetic causes of diseases began in 2012.
100,000 Genomes Project aims to read the genomes of patients with rare diseases and cancer.
Goal is to speed up diagnosis and create personalised treatment plans.
On track to complete recruitment to the project this Autumn.

Handheld device sequences human genome – BBC News – 29-Jan-2018
Handheld device developed by the company Oxford Nanopore.
Nanopore tech analyser uses longer strands of DNA.
Can read parts of the genome not seen before including telomeres.
Patient benefits also depend how fast we can make sense of the genomic.

FDA approves cancer-gene profiling test – Chron – 2-Dec-2017
Foundation Medicine’s test for patients with advanced or widely spread cancers.
FoundationOne CDx tests for 324 genes in any solid tumor.
Tests may point to studies testing drugs that target those genes.
Avoids multiple tests for individual genes that match specific drugs.

Personalised medicine and the ‘batch of you’ – Silicon Republic – 30-Sep-2017
FDA approved in 2017, Kymriah is entirely customised to the individual patient.
Eight of the top 10 blockbuster drugs are now biologics.
Precision medicines manufacturing must increase the range of products at an increased speed.
Large-scale production of a small number of chemical drugs is being replaced.
Industry X.0 businesses embrace constant technological change.

The Future Of Pharmaceuticals Is Custom-Printing Drugs – Gizmodo – 28-Sep-2017
New drug custom-printing method would allow pharmacists to customise for dosage, for your own personal biology, or even to combine many pills into one dose.
Researchers at the University of Michigan have invented a technique that they say can print precise doses of multiple drugs onto a variety of surfaces.
A major advantage,of this method will be the ability to control dosing.

Every cancer patient could have DNA tested – Independent – 4-Jul-2017
Professor Dame Sally Davies envisions millions of patients having their DNA tested routinely.
Whole genome sequencing involves 3.2 billion letters of code.
Price of tests has to an average £680.
60 % of cancer patients have actionable data – mutations that can shape future treatment.

Personalised drug delivery wearable invented – Sky News – 11-May-2017
The way each person processes medication is unique.
Difficult to prescribe and administer the correct level of life-saving drugs to maintain the right level of the medicine in the patients’ bloodstream.
Engineers at Stanford University have invented a tool which automatically monitors and administers patients’ medication.
Hope to miniaturise the components into a device which could be implanted or worn by the patient.

Personalised medicine boost as cancer drug monitored in real-time – Chemistry World – 13-Jan-2017
Aptamer-based sensors can track levels of small molecules in mobile rats.
Could continuously guide drug dosing in humans by monitoring drug metabolism or organ function.
Whole blood tended to foul up sensors’ molecular sites.
New sensors have laminar flow sheath passes above the sensor architecture, allowing small molecules through but washes blood cells away.

Genomics is opening new frontiers for precision medicine – IEEE Pulse – 3-Oct-2016
A decade after the Human Genome Project was declared complete the cost to sequence DNA has plummeted roughly a millionfold.
Even more improvements expected over the next five to ten years.
Genetic testing is becoming more common as part of some patient treatment plans.
Doctors practice precision oncology to obtain genome sequences of both the tumour and the individual.
Genomics has been applied to studying diseases spanning from depression to diabetes to high cholesterol.

NHS sets out vision for personalised medicine – PHG Foundation – 8-Sep-2016
Improving Outcomes Through Personalised Medicine report launched at Health and Innovation Expo 2016.
Vision for the next five years:
– Whole genome sequencing for specific conditions
– Improved diagnosis of rare conditions
– Better understanding of cancer
– Strengthened and integrated informatics capability
By 2025 disease will be classified by its underlying genetic cause.

Genomics’ potential to transform healthcare – Health IT Central – 15-Jun-2016
100,000 Genomes Project is sequencing genomes from patients with rare diseases, cancers and infectious diseases.
Leading to better diagnoses, new drugs and treatments.
Challenge is getting enough tumour DNA of the right quality to sequence.
Opportunity for individuals to gain an understanding of her/his health drivers and take control of their own wellbeing.
Interview with Sir John Chisholm, Executive Chair of Genomics England.

Personalised pills printed with custom release profiles – European Pharmaceutical Review – 26-May-2016
Different clinical circumstances call for different types of timed release of drugs.
National University of Singapore have designed a fabrication process where drug is contained within a polymer that is shaped to determine the rate of release.
Can include multiple drugs within same tablet each with its own release profile.
Uses commercially available 3D printer.
Assistant Professor Soh: “This new tablet fabrication method is a game changer – it is technically simple, relatively inexpensive and versatile.”

Creating custom drugs on a portable device – Kurzweil AI – 1-Apr-2016
MIT develops portable pharmaceutical manufacturing system that can be reconfigured to produce a variety of drugs on demand.
Able to manufacture about 1,000 doses of one of four different drugs in 24 hours.
Chemical reactions take place in small tubes as opposed to the huge vats batch processing.
Next steps are to reduce the size, increase complexity of drugs and to produce tablets (rather than liquid drugs).
COMMENT: In future this will also allow your local pharmacy to produce personalised medicines perfectly balanced for your physiology.

New Parliamentary Group to personalised medicine – Cambridge Network – 16-Mar-2016
All-Party Parliamentary Group (APPG) on Personalised Medicine has launched at the House of Commons.
Looking at best use of cutting-edge technologies to provide more personalised health and care.
Chaired by Jo Churchill MP.

SAP launches personalised medicine solutions – inside SAP – 16-Dec-2015
SAP Foundation for Health and the SAP Medical Research Insights solution built on the HANA platform.
“Unprecedented” ability to handle inputs like medical research, electronic health records and human genome sequencing.
Extensible clinical data warehouse model
First solution codeveloped with the National Centre for Tumor Diseases (NCT).

Personalised medicine: The right treatment for the right person at the right time – EU Briefing – 26-oct-2015
A solid overview of personalised medicine including genetic variations, genomic testing, -omics technologies and biomarkers.
Also lists EU funded projects and initiatives.

First Indian hospital to routinely test genes – The Hindu – 21-Sep-2105
Jipmer hospital to regularly use pharmacogenomics testing of drug-related proteins.
Will help personalise treatment of patients with epilepsy, diabetes, cancer, etc.
Recognises that one drug does not fit all – improves on today’s ‘trial and error’ prescribing.

3D-printed pill approved by FDA – Guardian – 5-Aug-2015
Aprecia launches first FDA approved 3D-printed drug. The epilepsy pill could lead the way to personalised medicines being manufactured close to the point of care. Once drug manufacturing is controlled by digital specifications, instead of bulk production factory lines, each pill could potentially be different. Not only with the right dosage for particular gene variations but even ramping medication up and down.

An evidence-based, personalized approach to health – Michael Lustgarten – 29-Jul-2015
TEDx talk
Epidemmiological studies don’t take into account our personal DNA
Obama announces $215m of funding for Precision Medicine Genetic Plan
Certain genes linked to certain health outcomes
Can check secondary impacts – eg monitor urea to determine personal optimum protein intake
Speaker decreased his mortiality risk by reduction in protein intake
Reference ranges don’t directly map to minimum mortality risk.

Prostate cancer drug choice improved with genetic analysis – Irish Medical Times – 16-Jul-2015
More than 5,000 patients with metastatic disease recruited from four large multi-centre global clinical trials. Some patients who would receive no benefit could skip three months of unnecessary treatment.
The days when everyone was treated with the same drug are gone.

Precision medicine can change health care – diginomica – 15-Jul-2015
Need to overcome siloed and unstructured health data. Technology can help to synthesize information for healthcare professionals to enable better treatment decisions by clinicians. SAP partnering with ASCO to provide real-time clinical insights for cancer patients.

New R&D division focused on “scientific discovery” – Belfast Telegraph – 10-Jul-2015
More and more investment in medical technology.
“Our focus is on targeting the thriving personalised medicine market, which at its heart relies on ‘precision medicine’ enabling technology and tests to tailor healthcare solutions to the right patients at the right time” – Patrick Henry, head of Randox Biosciences

Genetic test for ‘familial’ heart risk extended – BBC News – 9-Jun-2015
Blood tests to be offered to close relatives of people found to have familial hypercholesterolaemia.
50% of people with FH develop heart disease before they are 60.

Open source drug company working to create personalized cancer therapeutics – Pink Army – founded in 2009

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